Types of Pacemakers Turkey 

    The heart is made up of many tissues that are complex but work in harmony with each other. These tissues are specialized according to the tasks of the heart. Failure in one of these tissues or regions; can adversely affect the functioning of the heart. There is a special area in the heart known as the “sinus node”. The electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract and pump blood occur in this region. The impulses formed in the sinus node reach the heart chambers with the help of the transmission network. Triggered by stimuli, the heart chambers contract and pump blood throughout the body. Thus, oxygen and nutrients in the blood reach the tissues. In some people, the stimuli that cause the heart to contract may not occur as it should. In some, electrical impulses that occur normally may not reach the relevant parts of the heart in a timely manner. In both cases, unwanted disturbances occur. The heartbeat may slow down and become irregular heartbeats; Pacemakers are used in order for it to occur in the required number and in the required order. There are many types of pacemakers. In this article, we will talk about the types of pacemakers and what they are used for.

    You can call us to get detailed information about types of pacamkers in Turkey, You can make an appointment with Associate Professor Dr. Ömer Uz.

    Why Pacemakers Are Inserted?

    Pacemakers can be used for two different purposes:

    • The electrical stimuli needed by the heart occur in the region called the sinus node. If there is a problem in this area, the generation of electrical stimuli is disrupted. This causes the heartbeat to slow down or become irregular. Pacemakers can be inserted to correct these problems.
    • The stimuli formed in the sinus nodes reach the heart chambers thanks to a transmission network surrounding the heart. If these stimuli do not reach the chambers on time, slowing and irregular heartbeats can be seen. Pacemakers can also be used to ensure that the stimuli we mentioned can reach the required areas appropriately.

    What are the Components of Pacemakers?

    Pacemakers consist of two main parts. These are the “generator” part and the “electrode” part. The electrical stimuli needed for the heartbeats are produced in the part known as the generator. The electrodes act as a bridge between the heart and the generator of the pacemaker. Thanks to these special cables, the pacemaker can follow the beats of the heart. If it detects a problem in the beats, the electrical impulses produced in the generator part can be transmitted to the relevant parts of the heart with the electrodes. Pacemakers have a generator and at least one electrode. The number of electrodes may increase in some cases. Materials that will not interact with the tissues and will not damage the heart tissues are used in the production of the pacemaker. 

    How do pacemaker work?

    Electrodes (special cables) placed in certain parts of the heart constantly follow the beats of the heart. If a disruption occurs in these beats, the pacemaker creates an electrical impulse to regulate the beats. These stimuli are delivered to the relevant region of the heart with the help of the electrodes we mentioned earlier. Thus, the heart continues to beat at normal rates and regularity.

    Types of Pacemakers 

    Pacemakers are generally classified under two main groups.

    Temporary Pacemakers

    Temporary pacemakers are used to treat temporary disturbances in the electrical systems of the heart. In general, they can stay on the patient for 10 to 14 days. In some cases, they can also be used to create a safe waiting period for patients who will have permanent pacemakers. They have a simple structure compared to permanent pacemakers. Since their usage time is limited, they do not have specializations such as permanent batteries. Therefore, there are not many varieties.

    Permanent Pacemakers

    Permanent pacemaker types are listed below

    • DDD Pacemakers: It is one of the most commonly used types of pacemakers. DDD pacemakers have two separate electrodes. One of these electrodes is connected to the right ventricle and the other to the right atrium.
    • VVI Pacemakers: VVI pacemakers have a simpler structure and cost compared to other permanent pacemakers. It has a single electrode and this electrode is used to stimulate the heart ventricle. Although it has a simple structure, it is quite effective in fulfilling its task.
    • 3-Wire Pacemakers (CRT): There are two types of 3-wire pacemakers. One of them has the feature of electroshock, while the other does not have the feature of electroshock. Those with the electroshock feature are known as CRT-D, while the normal ones are called CRT directly. As their name suggests, these pacemakers have 3 electrodes. In the treatment of diseases such as heart failure, these 3 electrodes support the beating of the heart and allow the blood circulation to occur in a healthy way.
    • Cardioverter – Defibrillators (ICD): The general working principles of these batteries are similar to other permanent pacemakers. However, they have a very important function that differs from other pacemakers and they are generally preferred because of this function. ICD pacemakers can deliver an electroshock to the heart if needed. Thus, they take a role in preventing the life risks that occur in cases such as serious rhythm disorders and heart failure. They can weigh between 60 and 90 grams according to their characteristics, they are more expensive compared to other permanent batteries.

    Today, many pacemakers are manufactured to have what is known as “Rate Adaptive”. Rate Adaptive feature; analyzes the patient’s pace and heartbeat in detail. Pacemakers with this feature are generally used in children, young people and individuals with an active life. Because this feature enables the pacemaker to adapt to the changes in the body’s movement and to regulate the heartbeats according to this tempo. The -R addition is placed next to the names of pacemakers with this feature. For example, a pacemaker normally named VVI is called VVI-R if it has Rade Adaptive feature.